In an increasingly competitive business environment organizations must develop capabilities that will provide them with a sustainable competitive advantage. Knowledge sharing enables organizations to develop skills and competencies, increase value and sustain their competitive advantage.
Srivastava et al. By engaging in the knowledge sharing process teams create a new unique knowledge resource that competitors cannot easily imitate. Knowledge sharing leads to superior team performance and is a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Literature indicates that there are a variety of factors that influence knowledge sharing in teams. Some of the factors include personality traits, communication styles, trust, interpersonal attitudes, leadership, diversity of expertise and team size.
Two factors that the literature has examined extensively on multiple dimensions are trust and leadership. Trust is an important ingredient to successfully creating, sharing and applying knowledge in teams.
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Trust in teams becomes important when a team process, like knowledge sharing, requires interdependence, information sharing and collaboration. Research shows that these processes are very sensitive to the quality of interpersonal trust relationships Zand, When teams collaborate and share information openly, vulnerabilities often surface.
A trusting person will openly exchange useful ideas, collaborate, accept influence and impose relatively little control. Therefore trust needs to be present to enable knowledge sharing behaviors.
Leadership and management are not synonymous. Leadership can be thought of as a relationship between the leader and those being led that can motivate a team or organization. A leader is able to influence individuals to accomplish a group or organizational goal Thompson, A team leader, then, can have a large amount of influence on a team.
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As such, the attitude that the team leader has about knowledge sharing is critical. A study of knowledge workers done by Karl Sveiby that analyzed the free text comments entered by 2, respondents, across 92 business units, in 12 companies found that respondents blame their nearest supervisor and senior executives for a lack of knowledge sharing.
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Yet only a few managers are perceived as resistant to knowledge sharing. The issue is in what they do not do; managers are perceived not to share what they know or encourage knowledge sharing behaviors of others. Literature suggests that managers and leaders who simply express a favorable opinion toward knowledge sharing are resented and seen as hypocritical.
Accordingly, in order for knowledge sharing to occur, team leaders must actively encourage Svieby, or facilitate it. Given the importance of trust and leadership in knowledge sharing, below are four recommendations that leaders should consider implementing to increase knowledge sharing and enhance performance within teams:.
Create an Open Trusting Environment : Trust in another team member is directly related to the accuracy, relevance and completeness of information and knowledge shared as well as the acceptance of others' knowledge and influence Zand, Team leaders who actively model knowledge sharing lead by example and demonstrate that the open and timely sharing of significant ideas and information is valuable for the team. Team members are likely to reciprocate by sharing their expertise and knowledge with the team as a result Lee et al. Engage in Participative decision making when possible : By engaging in participative decision making, a team leader provides more opportunities for members to share their ideas.
Agree on Expectations for Knowledge use : When individuals are uncertain about how information will be used i. Recognize Individual Ideas and Contributions : Individuals are motivated to share their unique knowledge with one another when their leader treats them fairly and recognizes their input as valuable. Knowledge sharing will increase when team leaders recognize individuals for their contribution of ideas and information Srivastava et al. Picture by: Microsoft Office Images. Teams in the engineering department of a large Australian automotive company were responsible for developing specific vehicle components such as the body structure or door.
Team members had varying levels of expertise. Tasks were complex, highly interdependent and non-routine. Team leaders actively provided and elicited expertise and knowledge to their teams. They shared candid insights and experiences, project concerns, personal thoughts as well as lessons learned. They also made it a point to facilitate opportunities for team members to share in a safe open environment. As members saw their team leader modeling this behavior they became willing to share information and ideas with one another.
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Team members began to feel safe to freely exchange their personal insights, concerns, issues and task-related knowledge. As a result, Team members interacted frequently to help one another produce technical drawings i. As one of the team leaders surmised, "Knowledge sharing has positioned us well for the future Knowledge sharing is critical to organizational success. It enhances team performance and provides an organization with a sustainable competitive advantage.
Yet knowledge sharing does not always occur naturally. Team leaders play an important role in helping to facilitate knowledge sharing within teams by fostering an open trusting environment, leading by example, setting expectations, facilitating opportunities for team members to share ideas and recognizing the contributions of individuals team members. Almahamid, S.
Team building in project management
International Journal of Management , 27 3 , Amit, R. In most cases, team building involves relationships among peers with a wide diversity of expertise. In a recent exploratory field probe with over 90 project leaders, we attempted to identify some of the major barriers project leaders experience in building effective teams. The project leaders represented several types of organizations and technologies. Most of the respondents to our probe, however, were in research and development, construction, and engineering projects and computer information system implementors.
A more comprehensive study is planned to develop detailed data on team-building barriers. Our purpose here is to illustrate some of the most common major barriers to team-building efforts and suggest alternative approaches for handling these problems. A major barrier is that team members often have different professional objectives and interests. When team members are reluctant to do so, severe problems develop in building an effective team.
This problem is compounded when the team relies on support groups which have different interests and priorities. Team development efforts also can be thwarted when role conflicts exist among the team members. Role conflicts are most likely to occur when there is ambiguity about who does what within the project team and between the team and external team support groups. Overlapping and ambiguous role responsibilities are also major contributors to role conflicts.
One of the most frequently cited team-building barriers is unclear project objectives. As one project leader remarked:. How can you implement a team building program if you're not clear on what the objectives for the project really are?
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Let's face it, many teams are muddling along on fifty percent of their potential because no one is really clear on where the project should be headed. Moreover, if objectives are not explicit, it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to clearly define roles and responsibilities. A characteristic of many projects is that the environments in which they operate are in a continual state of change. For example, senior management may keep changing the project scope, objectives, and resource base. In other situations, regulatory changes or client demands for new and different specifications can drastically affect the internal operations of a project team.
A Shared Definition to Trust
Disruptive environments are frequently a characteristic of project teams. Initially we were somewhat surprised at the number of project leaders who mentioned competition for a leadership position. They indicated that this barrier was most likely to occur in the early phases of a project of if the project ran into severe problems and the quality of team leadership came into question.
Obviously, both cases of leadership challenge can result in barriers if only temporary to team building. Frequently, these challenges were covert challenges to the project leader's ability. One of the most frequently mentioned barriers of all was the lack of a clearly delineated team to undertake a project. A common pattern was that a work unit not a project team would be charged with a task but no one leader or team member was clearly delegated the responsibility.
As a consequence, some work-unit members would be working on the project but not be entirely clear on the extent of their responsibilities. In other cases, a poorly defined team will result when a project is supported by several departments but no one person in these departments is designated as a team member and departmental coordinator. Such an approach results in the project leader being unclear on whom to count for support.
Another barrier was centered on how team members were selected. In some cases, project personnel are assigned to the teams by functional managers, and the project manager has little or no input into the selection process. This, of course, can impede team development efforts, especially when the project leader is given available personnel versus the best, hand-picked team members. Team-building efforts were hampered when the project leader suffered from poor credibility within the team or from important managers external to the team.
In such cases, team members are often reluctant to make a commitment to the project or the leader. Credibility problems may come from poor managerial skills, poor technical judgments or lack of experience relevant to the project. Lack of commitment to the project was cited as one of the most common barriers.
One project leader made this comment to us:. Let's face it—some personnel are not suited for project work. Some can't stand the ambiguous, fluid nature of projects while others simply rather work alone or with a small group of colleagues they've developed close working relationships with over a period of years. As we suggested earlier, the nature of many projects requires the disruption of valued, existing routine work relationships of team members.
As a consequence, they may not feel committed to the project. Other issues which can result in uncommitted team members are suspicious attitudes which may exist between the project leader and a functional support manager or between two team members from two warring functional departments. One team leader put it this way:. A lot of teams have their prima donnas and you learn to live and function with them.