In the second method, employed in the new Agfacolor process, the different color-forming substances, instead of being added to the developing solution, are incorporated in emulsions that are coated in superposition so that three differently colored images are simultaneously formed in a single development. The metallic silver is subsequently removed by solvents leaving only pure dye images.
This new process is based upon the pioneer work on color-forming methods of R. Fischer who, before the World War, developed the process substantially as it is now being used. Lummerzheim, Berlin. Legt man z. Fischer machte nun den Vorschlag, die Oxydationsprodukte bestimmter Entwickler, die selbst keine Farbstoffe sind, mit einem zweiten Stoff, Komponente genannt, zu einem Farbstoff zu kuppeln.
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Der Erfinder, der auf dem hier angebahnten Wege weiterarbeiten wollte, stand vor folgender Entscheidung. Also wird an der getroffenen Stelle in der ersten Entwicklung Silber in der oberen Schicht reduziert, in der mittleren und unteren Schicht nicht. Wird dagegen an einer anderen Stelle ein roter Bildpunkt abgebildet, so ergibt sich hier in der ersten Entwicklung Silberreduktion in der unteren Schicht und in der zweiten Entwicklung Farbstoffbildung in der oberen gelb und mittleren Schicht purpur.
In der Durchsicht ergibt dies nach Entfernung des Silbers Rot. Belichtung, 4.
Belichtung, 3. Farbentwicklung, 4. Entsilberung, 5. Anders als beim Umkehrverfahren geht man hierbei direkt nach der Aufnahme in den farbstoffbildenden Entwickler. Die Stelle erscheint in der Durchsicht rein gelb. In der Spielfilm- und Kulturfilmherstellung wird nach dem Negativ-Positiv-Verfahren schon seit mehreren Jahren gearbeitet.
April In den deutschen und z. In: Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift 63, , pp. Geben wir als das Wort:.
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Das ist keineswegs der Fall. Der eine lautete:. Dieses Verfahren war schon von Dr. Fischer und Siegrist gefunden worden; nach ihm werden durch das Zusammenwirken bestimmter Entwickler mit sogenannten Farbkomponenten einfarbige Bilder erzeugt. Kumetat und Dr. Zeh zu nennen. Wilmanns : Wie das Agfacolor-Verfahren entstand. Manufactured at Wolfen, Germany, by I. Farbenindustrie Akt.
The factory is now in the Russian Zone of occupation. Integral tripack, or monopack, with non-diffusing colour couplers incorporated in three emulsion layers. General Description.
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Homolka and Rudolf Fischer The former discovered that certain intermediates, such as those that gave indigoid dyes, can develop exposed silver bromide producing simultaneously an insoluble dye. Such agents are indoxyl, 3-hydroxy-thio-naphthene, etc. There is another way, namely that of using the development process indirectly to form dyes. Fischer discovered that dyes, such as those belonging to the quininimine and azomethine class, can be formed when exposed silver bromide is developed with p -phenylene diamine together with coupling substances.
During development p -phenylene, or its derivatives, reacts with phenols or naphthols or substances containing a reactive methylene group through the medium of oxidized silver bromide, to form strongly coloured insoluble dyestuffs, the developed silver image being at the same time produced. Fischer thus conceived the idea of mixing a developing agent, such as an aromatic diamine, or amino phenol and a coupler which could be a phenol or a body containing a negative methylene group. The next step was to incorporate the coupler in the silver halide layer or layers instead of adding it to the developer, but owing to the apparent impossibility at that time of making the dye-forming substances non-diffusing, Fischer, in , had to abandon his project for making a multilayer colour film by applying these discoveries.
The physical structure of a gel is such that the conditions for molecular diffusion are ideal. Hence our ability, amongst other things, to develop a gelatine emulsion. As gelatine can only trap coarse-grained particles insoluble in water, the dyes produced by colour development must be insoluble in water and large in structure.
Next, the substances to be incorporated must not adversely affect the sensitivity of the silver halide emulsion. The next important name is that of Dr. William Schneider of the Agfa organization I. He tells us that in instructions were issued that a colour process must forthwith be perfected. In Schneider and G. Wilmanns reported Agfa-Veroefentlichungen , Vol.
Colour couplers similar to those discovered by Fischer were used but these were made fast to diffusion by attaching a long-chain alkyl group, since diffusion depends upon the physical dimensions of the particles determined by molecular weight and constitution. In general, a chain-like structure containing twelve carbon atoms is usually adequate. By virtue of these couplers containing a group soluble in alkali, it was feasible to incorporate them in the gelatine emulsion in an alkaline solution.
In Agfacolor Reversal film was made available in 8 mm. These films were of both daylight and tungsten types, the speed being roughly the same as that of Kodachrome.
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Immediately following the occupation of Germany, investigation by the Anglo-American Service experts of the Agfa film factory at Wolfen, Germany, revealed that the Germans had developed to a commercial stage the long-promised mm. None of the colours were particularly saturated, the reds being quite dull. It was not as good as Technicolor. It does not appear that any new developing machines or printers were constructed for the processing of the film, but modifications were made in existing equipment.
Between and thirteen feature pictures were made see list below and some fifty shorts consisting of one or two reels.
The material is particularly suitable for newsreel production, and a picture was made of actual combat in Russia. Ranger U. The latter was.
The method is capable of good results if proper control and equipment were used, but under the wartime conditions in Germany there was an apparent lack of good equipment and a generaly laxity in quality control, resulting in many inferior prints being released. Darrel Catling, A. Moreover, a complete change of locale— coinciding with the change of the reels—often helped to cover up the lack of balance.
Incidentally, some of the trick work was of a very high order. Therefore, for the moment at least, it seems apparent that the Agfacolor system is unable to yield cheap prints for commercial release purposes; the cost cannot fail to be very much higher than that of a print consisting of one ordinary emulsion and three different dyes. Post-war efforts have been confined to the Russians, who have made a number of news films of events such as Dr. Both these films were publicly exhibited in the British theatres, and the writer heard innumerable people express very strongly their view that the colour was to be preferred to that of Technicolor.
The expert saw that there was anomalous colour rendering due to the very defective magenta coupler, but here and there shots turned up of quite exquisitely satisfying colour, and it is perfectly certain that the Germans were at the beginning of a most important development. The men who were responsible for the achievement have since been interrogated, the opinion unanimously expressed being that they were forced into production before they had completed their task, and that great improvements would shortly have been made in the saturation of the couplers and particularly in the design of the coating machinery.
In the following table, cost figures per foot of rnm. Agfacolor negative and positive film are compared with those for black-and-white film. Late in and early in , monthly production of Agfacolor film at the Agfa film factory at Wolfen amounted to an average of:. It is claimed that under the Russians this has been boosted to more than 15,, ft. Release prints were always made from the original negative and no duplicate negatives were made. Special effects were made by indirect and trick methods which were not very satisfactory.
No masking was used. All Agfacolor films have three emulsion layers and one filter layer Fig. The film base is first coated with a red sensitive emulsion. Directly on top of this is coated a green sensitive emulsion. Next comes a thin layer of colloidal silver which functions as a yellow filter.
The final coating is an emulsion sensitive to blue only. The yellow filter, needless to say, has the duty of absorbing blue light transmitted by the top layer, which would otherwise record in the green and red recording layers which are inherently blue sensitive Fig. No non-stress surface gelatine coating is used and no gelatine coating divides the green and red recording emulsion. The colour couplers dispersed in these emulsions are chosen such that:. The anti-halation coating is on the back of the film base in the negative-positive films and beneath the bottom layer of emulsion in the reversal film see Table The total thickness of the multiple layers does not exceed that of normal film, therefore the separate coatings are required to be extremely thin.
Nitrate base is used for negative.
Acetate base is used for positive. Thickness microns. This type of sensitizing is typical of most monopacks, such as Kodachrome, Kodacolor, Ektachrome, and Ansco Color film. The ideal sensitivities can be mathematically calculated relative to either practical or theoretical synthesis, by additive or subtractive methods but the best compromise has to be effected with the materials available Fig. Since it is desirable that the positive material should record in each of its respective layers light modulated by only one layer of the negative, the sensitizing should be designed to correspond to the maximum absorption and minimum overlap of the spectral transmission of the negative dyes Fig.
The relation between negative colours and positive sensitizings can in fact be such as to overlook any relation whatever to what we might expect to be the normal appearance of colours in the negative. By this is meant that the negative colours need not be complementary to the colour of the light recorded.